INMIGRACIÓN EN ESTADOS UNIDOS Y MÉXICO: Retratos de refugiados guatemaltecos en el limbo.

Texto: Óscar Gil-García

 

 

Foto: Pedro y su familia. Autor: Manuel Gil

 

Muchos de los guatemaltecos que se convirtieron en refugiados fruto de su larga guerra civil siguen siendo hoy apátridas.

La guerra duró entre 1960 y 1996 e infligió daños significativos, particularmente en la comunidad indígena maya. El conflicto llevó a 200,000 guatemaltecos a huir a México, donde unos 43,000 refugiados establecieron asentamientos.

Durante más de una década he dirigido investigaciones en La Gloria, México, el mayor de estos asentamientos, cerca de la frontera de Guatemala. Actualmente, debido a las estrictas leyes de naturalización, es estimado que hasta 27,000 guatemaltecos a lo largo de México siguen siendo apátridas. A su vez, muchos refugiados guatemaltecos han emigrado a Estados Unidos, sólo para enfrentar políticas igual de draconianas.

En 2007, comencé un proyecto fotográfico-documental con mi hermano, fotógrafo Manuel Gil. Nuestro objetivo era conocer los desafíos que estas personas enfrentan como refugiados apátridas después de más de 30 años, y el impacto que las políticas de inmigración tienen sobre sus familias. Esto es lo que encontramos.

 

Apátridas en México

En 2014, Gaspar Félix Juan, un líder comunitario de La Gloria, me pidió ayuda para obtener el estatus legal de varios guatemaltecos apátridas en México. El fin de un programa de legalización (1995-2005) en México para los refugiados que huyeron de la guerra civil de Guatemala dejó a muchos sin documentos legales. Muchos de ellos viven en comunidades, ex-asentamientos de refugiados, en todo el estado sureño de Chiapas. En colaboración con la abogada mexicana Julia Torres, presentamos una queja al gobierno mexicano en relación con el retraso prolongado en los procesos de naturalización. Y también solicitamos la legalización de 26 demandantes.

 

Foto: María Miguel Pedro. Autor: Manuel Gil.

 

María Miguel Pedro, una de las demandantes, tenía 86 años en ese momento. Madre de cinco hijos y abuela de 40 nietos (todos nacidos en México), ha permanecido apátrida en México durante más de 30 años. En 2016, sufrió un derrame cerebral que la dejó paralizada y muda. La falta de documentos legales limita su acceso al sistema de salud pública. Por lo tanto, confía en su frágil marido de 90 años de edad (que sí tiene documentos mexicanos) para obtener medicamentos asequibles.

 

Foto: Angel Pascual Francisco sentado. Autor: Manuel Gil.

 

Otro peticionario, Ángel Pascual Francisco, es padre de cuatro hijos. Dos de ellos viven en Estados Unidos. Cuando le pregunté por qué no se unió a ellos, dijo: “Tengo miedo de que me capturen ingresando a los Estados Unidos, y como no tengo ningún documento que identifique mi origen nacional, me da miedo que me envíen a Guatemala”.

Cuando se le preguntó qué era lo que alimentaba ese terror, él respondió: “Cuando era pequeño vi a mi padre, a mi hermana (embarazada) y a un hermano menor (de cinco años) asesinados en Guatemala”.

Este violento episodio continúa atormentando a Ángel, quien sufre de ansiedad y depresión. Recibir documentación mexicana le permitiría a Ángel viajar y buscar empleo en México sin temor a ser deportado a Guatemala.

Los exiliados guatemaltecos, a pesar de carecer de documentos legales, han construido conexiones con sus cónyuges y familias establecidas en México y Estados Unidos. En contraste con la usual cobertura mediática que describe a los migrantes como una amenaza, nuestro trabajo intenta representar a los exiliados guatemaltecos con un foco de dignidad. Esperamos demostrar que, al igual que millones de migrantes en todo el mundo, estas personas buscan un sentido de pertenencia en su nación receptora.

 

Migración a México

Estos retratos son parte de una historia más grande sobre la compleja relación de México con las poblaciones indígenas y migrantes.

Desde su fundación, el gobierno mexicano promovió activamente políticas de inmigración que favorecieron la entrada de inmigrantes blancos de Europa. El gobierno mexicano también alentó la emigración durante el siglo XX, impulsada por las políticas de Estados Unidos y la demanda de mano de obra. Estas políticas de inmigración informaron cómo el gobierno mexicano recibió refugiados guatemaltecos.

Un año antes de que la guerra en Guatemala terminara, el gobierno mexicano anunció un programa de naturalización, pero no fue hasta 2001 que México redujo los requisitos para la entrada legal y proporcionó visas temporales a los refugiados guatemaltecos. Sin embargo, las restricciones de viaje y empleo de estas visas agravaron la pobreza entre los refugiados. La investigación ha demostrado que la mala administración burocrática socavó el programa de legalización de México. La salida de ONGs y agencias humanitarias que apoyaban a los refugiados disminuyó la presión política sobre el Estado mexicano para apoyar a los refugiados. De esta forma, el gobierno puso fin al programa de legalización en 2005.

Pero la violencia y la inseguridad en Guatemala desde la guerra siguen empujando a la gente a huir, y evitan que muchos de los que huyeron durante la guerra regresen.

 

Migración a Estados Unidos

Estados Unidos también ha promovido medidas draconianas contra la inmigración. Como declaró el Consejo Americano de Inmigración: “Se han creado nuevas clases de ‘delitos’ que se aplican únicamente a los inmigrantes (a través del estatuto jurídico). En definitiva, los propios inmigrantes están siendo criminalizados (por delitos menores)”. Esto ha impulsado una tasa desproporcionada de deportaciones de guatemaltecos. Varios de los apátridas que conocimos durante nuestra investigación vivieron con la amenaza de ser deportados, o se enfrentaron a una orden de deportación de EU.

 

Foto: Amalia Manuel Pedro y su familia. Autor: Manuel Gil.

 

Una de estas personas es Amalia Manuel Pedro. En 2006, Pedro fue detenida en un allanamiento en el lugar donde trabajaba y fue acusada de robo de identidad. Fue deportada de Estados Unidos a México. Su esposo y su hijo, Gaspar Jr. se reunieron con ella en Chiapas, convirtiéndose ‘de facto’ en deportados, ya que la deportación de facto se produce cuando los padres llevan a su hijo con ellos cuando son deportados. Un estudio del Pew Hispanic Center estima que algunos de los 500,000 niños nacidos en Estados Unidos registrados en el Censo mexicano de 2010 habían acompañado a México a los padres enviados por las autoridades de Estados Unidos.

Gaspar Jr. enfrentó obstáculos en la obtención de servicios sociales en México. Esas dificultades han sido identificadas por otros jóvenes ciudadanos estadounidenses que “pueden ser sujetos a mayores dificultades económicas; una red social de seguridad más débil; dificultades en la escuela; y, potencialmente, la amenaza de inestabilidad social y peligro físico”. La situación de apátrida de Amalia, que está en curso, la hace vulnerable a otra deportación de México.

Las políticas de Estados Unidos que crearon la situación de Pedro, cada vez más informan la aplicación de prácticas policiales en las zonas fronterizas en México. Y la fortificación de la frontera sur de México dificulta las opciones disponibles para las personas que huyen de la violencia.

La política exterior estadounidense ha buscado reforzar las medidas de seguridad bilaterales. Como resultado, México deportó a más de 165,000 personas de Guatemala, Honduras y El Salvador en 2015: el doble del número de deportaciones de Estados Unidos a estos países.

El clima poco acogedor es aún más significativo para los migrantes apátridas e indígenas. Mientras que nuestra petición para obtener documentación mexicana para los 26 apátridas que huyeron del conflicto militar guatemalteco fue aprobada a fines de 2016, su aspecto indígena todavía los relega en la sociedad mexicana. Como resultado, varios de ellos todavía pueden ser objeto de intimidación por parte de agentes de migración, entre quienes se ha detectado que discriminan a indígenas y agravan las violaciones de derechos humanos en México. Este estado hostil ha provocado a las organizaciones de derechos humanos a pedir que se condicione la financiación estadounidense para fortalecer las fronteras de México con el fin de proteger los derechos de los migrantes.

 

Este artículo fue originalmente publicado en The Conversation.

Óscar Gil-García es catedrático de la universidad de Binghamton en Nueva York, experto en migración internacional, con enfoque en México, Centro América y EE.UU.

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